Biology is one of the most important subjects in NEET. In NEET, questions from biology subjects are categorised into Botany and Zoology. One deals with plants. The other deals with animals and other species. Biology would be the game changer subject to secure a good rank in NEET. Students would find the questions asked in the NEET question paper from NCERT biology textbooks. That is why students must learn the concepts in the biology textbook thoroughly to score a good rank in NEET. So, this article details the NEET Biology syllabus of both class 11 and class 12.
Syllabus of class 11 biology:
The NEET syllabus of class 11 biology are
- Diversity of the living organisms: Since biology is the subject that tells the living mechanisms of all the species in the world, the first chapter starts with explaining the diversity in them. The topic includes 4 chapters namely,
- The living world: This chapter includes “What is life”, “How a living being can be able to survive”, Essential conditions to live, common characteristics of living beings, etc.
- Biological classification: It includes subtopics like five-kingdom classification, salient features & classification of Monera, Protista, and Fungi into major groups, Lichens, Viruses Viroids
- Plant kingdom: This chapter includes the subtopics such as salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophytes, and Gymnosperms.
- Animal kingdom: This chapter includes the topics like salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level, chordates up to class level.
- Structural organization in Plants and animals: Certain structural organizations are inevitable for both plants and animals to perform all the vital functions. So, this topic explains about this organization.
- Morphology of flower plants: Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit, and seed.
- Structural organization in animals: Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems
- Cell structure and function: The cell is the smallest building block that every living thing is made up of i.e. Plants, animals, human beings, etc. Though the complex organs are responsible for performing the functions in animals or humans or plants, it is actually cells that help the organs to perform. Thus, this topic tells everything about cells in 3 chapters.
- Cell, the Unit of Life: Cell theory, cell as the basic unit of life, structure of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells, Plant cell & animal cell, cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall, cell organelles – structure and function, endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies, cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles, nucleus
- Biomolecules: Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure & function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, Enzymes: types, properties, enzyme action
- Cell Cycle and Cell Division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, their significance
- Plant physiology: Plant physiology is a science that tells about the mechanisms of plants. Like humans, Plants also grow from small saplings to big trees, take carbon dioxide, leave oxygen, prepare food by photosynthesis, and so forth. So, this topic tells the functions of plants in three chapters in detail.
- Photosynthesis in Higher Plants: Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition, site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis, photochemical & biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis, cyclic & non-cyclic photophosphorylation, chemiosmotic hypothesis, photorespiration, C3 and C4 pathways, factors affecting photosynthesis
- Respiration in Plants: Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation, TCA cycle, and electron transport system, energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated, amphibolic pathways, respiratory quotient
- Plant- Growth and Development: Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.
- Human Physiology: Human Physiology is a science that studies the functions of the human body. Our body is not so simple. Our body is a combination of different complex biological processes like respiration, excretion, blood circulation, nerve functions, etc. Every organ of the body performs some complex processes. So, in this topic, students read these functions in six chapters.
- Breathing and Exchange of Gases: Respiratory organs in animals, respiratory system in humans, Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans like exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume, disorders related to respiration like asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders
- Body Fluids and Circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood, the composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels, cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity, disorders of the circulatory system like hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure
- Excretory Products and their Elimination: Modes of excretion like ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism, human excretory system, structure and function, urine formation, osmoregulation, regulation of kidney function,renin-angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus, the role of other organs in excretion, disorders like uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, a kidney transplant
- Locomotion and Movement: Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins, and muscle contraction
- Neural Control and Coordination: Neuron and nerves, Nervous system in humans i.e. central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system & visceral nervous system, generation and conduction of nerve impulse.
- Chemical Coordination and Integration: Endocrine glands and hormones, human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads, mechanism of hormone action, the role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo & hyperactivity, and related disorders like dwarfism, cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease, acromegaly, etc.
The best source to understand these topics from the fundamentals is the NCERT textbooks. Students can refer to the chapter-wise notes and also the important questions on the internet. For instance, NEET the living world important questions. So, it would also become easy for the students to prepare for the Exam.
Conclusion: Every year, the NEET question paper definitely finds the questions from these topics of class 11. There is an advantage for the students. Students anyhow will prepare this syllabus for their CBSE board examination. If students are able to stress their preparation on these topics a little more. Then, it will be effortless for students to crack the NEET with a high score as the probability of the questions to come from these topics and chapters.